شناسایی مؤلفه‌های آموزش شایستگی‌محور در هنرستان‌های فنی‌حرفه‌ای و کار‌دانش: مطالعه ترکیبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مدیریت آموزشی ، دانشکده علوم انسانی ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد گرمسار ، گرمسار، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت آموزشی، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران.

چکیده

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف کشف مؤلفه‌های آموزش شایستگی‌محور در هنرستان‌های فنی‌حرفه‌ای و کار دانش انجام گرفت. این پژوهش از هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش آمیخته بود. مشارکت‌کنندگان در بخش کیفی شامل 15 صاحب‌نظر در حوزه تعلیم‌‌وتربیت بودند که به‌طور هدفمند انتخاب شدند که با آن‌ها مصاحبه‌های نیمه‌ساختاریافته صورت گرفت. سپس داده‌ها از طریق کدگذاری و تحلیل‌مضمون، تحلیل شدند. برای اعتبار داده‌ها از بازبینی مجدد توسط محققین، مشارکت‌کنندگان داخل و استادان بیرون از پژوهش و برای پایایی از ضریب‌توافق بین کدگذاران و پایایی بازآزمون (78% و 82%) استفاده شد. جامعه آماری در بخش کمّی شامل 1373 نفر از دبیران و مدیران هنرستان‌های ‌فنی ‌حرفه‌ای و کاردانش استان ‌قم بودند که با استفاده از نرم‌افزارsample power 273 نفر با روش نمونه‌گیری طبقه‌ای ‌انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده­ها پرسشنامه محقق‌ساخته بر اساس یافته‌های کیفی فاز اول بود که روایی ‌صوری و محتوایی با دو شاخص CVI و CVR و پایایی آن از طریق آلفای ‌کرونباخ محاسبه گردید. برای تجزیه و تحلیل ‌داده­ها از آمارهای توصیفی و استنباطی (تحلیل‌ عاملی ‌اکتشافی و تحلیل ‌عاملی ‌تأییدی) از طریق نرم‌افزارهای SPSS24، Smart-PLS20 استفاده شد. یافته‌های‌ پژوهش نشان داد که آموزش مبتنی ‌بر شایستگی دارای چهار مؤلفه «دانش»، «مهارت‌های ‌علمی-کاربردی»، «مهارت‌های‌ ارتباطی» و «نگرش» و عوامل تأثیرگذار عبارتند از: «آموزشی»، «‌فرهنگی»، «اقدامات آموزش‌‌وپرورش» و «‌اقتصادی». برازش مدل پژوهش نیز نشان‌ داد که مجموع عوامل شناسایی‌شده توانستند 71/0متغیر شایستگی را پیش‌بینی کنند. در نهایت، مدل‌ پیشنهادی از سطح برازش مناسبی برخوردار است (52/0=GOF).

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the Components of Competency-based Education in Technical and Vocational High Schools: A Mixed- Method Study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aghdas Nikooravesh 1
  • Nader Soleimani 2
  • Hamid Shafozadeh 2
  • Amirhossein Mohammad Davoodi 2
1 Educational Management, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran
2 2- Associate Professor, Department of Educational Administrationt, , Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch Garmsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted with the aim of discovering the components of competency-based education to be used in technical and vocational high schools. This research had a mixed method (qualitative-quantitative) and in terms of purpose was applied study. The participants in the qualitative phase were 15 education experts and professors, selected using purposive sampling. The research tool was a semi-structured interview, and data were analyzed through content coding and analysis. The researchers, participants, and education experts reviewed the data to verify its validity, and for reliability, the agreement coefficient between the coders and the reliability of the retest was used (78% & 82%). The study population in the quantitative phase consisted of 1373 teachers and principals from technical and vocational high schools in Qom province. The sample included 273 participants who were selected using Sample Power software based on relative stratified sampling. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire based on the findings of the qualitative phase whose face and content validity was assessed by two indicators CVI and CVR and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. Descriptive and inferential statistics (exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) were used to analyze the data via SPSS24 and Smart-PLS20. The findings showed that the competency-based education contains the following four components: knowledge, applied-scientific skills, communicative skills, and attitude. Influential factors included educational; cultural factors; measures taken by the Ministry of Education and economic factors. The fitness of the model revealed that all the factors identified managed to predict 0.71 of the competency-based education variable. The model also showed acceptable goodness of fit (GOF=0.52).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • competency-based education
  • technical and vocational high schools
  • educational system
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